Shabbat Bible Study for 3Jul2021
©2021 Mark Pitrone & Fulfilling Torah Ministries
3Jul21 – Year 3 Sabbath 17
B’midbar 28:1-29:40 (30.1 in Torah) – Yechezkel 45:13-25 – Tehellim 115 – Ivrit 10:1-39
B’midbar 28 Intro – This whole passage is about the additional offerings to be made on the Shabbat, the new moons and the Feasts. These are additional offerings that the priests were to offer in the Mishkan and the future temple. These are not personal offerings, like the families’ Pesach lambs. These are the national offerings. If the priests had to make all these offerings for each family in Yisrael – or even just for the citizens of Jerusalem, they would be there for MONTHS to try to slaughter that many animals, AND the flocks and herds would be severely depleted in a season – MUCH less in a year. Now think about the need for 7 million or more yearling lambs each Pesach (assuming 1 million families making Aliyah for the Feast). No way this was done for every family in Yerushalayim for the Feast of ULB, Shavuoth, and/or Sukkoth.
Since these were the national offerings for special days, in addition to the daily offerings, the daily offerings are mentioned first, followed by the special offerings. The daily offerings were offered in morning and afternoon about 9 AM and 3 PM by our reckoning, give or take. It seems that the evening and morning offerings are two halves of one daily offering – as they are a continual burnt, or elevation, offering.
In Daniel 8.14,
And he said unto me, Unto two thousand and three hundred days; then shall the sanctuary be cleansed. (KJV)
The words translated ‘days’ there are actually erev boker, the root words. Stone’s Tanakh has it translated
And he said to me, “Until nightfall, morning, two thousand and three hundred; and then the holy one will be rectified. (Tanakh – Stone’s Edition; Artsctoll)
It doesn’t say evenings/mornings plural or even evenings and mornings, which to my mind would make it unequivocal to mean 2300 days. It says 2300 evening/morning. It MAY be saying 2300 total offerings, 1150 evening + 1150 morning = 2300 offerings. I lean rather heavily to 2300 of each – 2300 combinations of evening and morning offerings seems the most natural, but it is not unequivocal to my mind. This is the only use of these terms together – the one immediately following the other – and is translated ‘days’ in KJV. The difference could have the start of this timing 38.33 months different in that prophecy – showing that it is not wise to base how you live your life on your interpretation of prophecy. In this case, one or both interpretations could be incorrect.
*I believe we are living in the last days, and I have believed this for 40+ years, based largely on Hal Lindsay’s (among other evangelical’s) books, and it has affected my life decisions. I am not prepared to retire, as my parents were. As I get nearer to that age, I realize the foolishness of that decision. I/we will always have to earn a living, somehow. We need to live our lives in holiness, as if the last day is today, while preparing as if the world will go on for another 200 years in its present (or worse) state. THAT is the definition of ‘prudent’ in this light.
The simple believeth every word: but the prudent man looketh well to his going. (Proverbs 14:15)
A prudent man foreseeth the evil, and hideth himself (prepares): but the simple pass on, and are punished. (Proverbs 22:3 & 27.12)
Woe unto them that are wise in their own eyes, and prudent in their own sight! (Isaiah 5:21)
Young men, listen up! Believing that Y’hovah Yeshua will return to rule and reign soon should make us live Torah in his righteousness. It should not make us think that preparations for our old age are unnecessary or that we should not continue to live as if what we don’t do to preserve this generation will have no effect. The world is reaping largely what WE elders have sown. I think the dispensational ½ truths that have been popular for the last 100-150 years in Xianity and the Laodicean spirit in the kahal of Mashiyach, has adversely affected our influence and been at least a secondary CAUSE of the economic, political and spiritual debauchery we see in America and the world. They have aided in the spiritual descent of mankind into the abyss. And we all must bear at least some partial responsibility – myself probably more than anyone listening, since I have a bit more influence due to my position as leader of this little group. Yacov is absolutely correct when he says
1 My brethren, be not many masters (rabbis), knowing that we shall receive the greater condemnation. 2 For in many things we offend all. (Yacov 3.1-2a)*
The daily offerings in the evenings and mornings are continual, no let up. I can only assume that, even during the Wilderness Adventure, these offerings were made every day. Did this affect their progress from camp to camp? Perhaps this is why they had only 42 recorded camps. Of course, those may have been the places they stayed for an extended period of time and they may have stopped to make these offerings and overnight while journeying from one semi-permanent camp to the next. If that were the case, they would only be able to travel for 4-5 hours at a time – the time they could travel between the boker and the ma’ariv offerings. If they were marching like the army marches, that would make for a 16-20 mile daily move, assuming that the manna and water from the Rock (1Cor.10.4) gave them all the necessary nutrition and the ability to march at a march pace – 30 inch steps, 2 steps per second, or about 4 miles per hour for 4-5 hours per day. That’s not unreasonable. Moshe was 120 when he croaked, and neither his body not his spirit had abated – he was in the same shape he had been in his 30s throughout his life. Q&C
V.7 says the tamid (daily) offerings were made in the Kodesh, but this was not the Kodesh within the Mishkan proper. This speaks of the place set apart for the offerings – the brazen altar. There is an interesting comment in Chumash on Ex.29.38-42, pp. 480-481.
The offering outlined in this passage was offered every day of the year, and was totally unrelated to the Inauguration ritual. Torah mentions it here to tell us that it was offered even before the Tabernacle assumed its full sanctity. Ibn Ezra and Chizkuni note that the tamid, like the other offerings of the inauguration week, was offered by Moshe, and the Kohanim assumed their full responsibility for it on the first of Nissan.
The offering of the morning Tamid was a festive event in the Temple. Citing the Mishnah and Chronicles, R’Bachyah records the process. As the service proceeded, the Levites, accompanied by musis, sang the Song of the Day(which is recited at the end of our daily morning service), and when the service was over, everyone bowed, even the king, if he was present.
Haamek Devar notes that this passage ends by emphasizing that the tent of Meeting will be the place where God will meet with Moses and the nation, and that it will be the place God will rest His Presence upon Yisrael. In Torah’s other passage on the Tamid (Num.28.1-8), there is no mention of the Tent. On the other hand, that passage describes the offering as My (i.e., God’s) food, a reference that does Not apply here. Based on these differences, Ha’amek D’var comments that the Tamid offering in the Wilderness had the unique function of cementing the closeness between God and Yisrael, while the tamid offerings in Eretz Yisrael – My food – were to bring prosperity to the nation, since food is a metaphor for wealth. The suggestion is that if Yisrael dedicates its own wealth to God’s service, He will reward it with even greater riches.
Beginning in v.9, we see the special mussaf offerings, beginning with that for Shabbat – 2 spotless lambs. The priests did not ‘rest’ from their daily labors on Shabbat, nor on any of the other holy convocations. In fact, they had MORE to do on all those days. So, there were daily sacrifices (erev boker), and there were weekly offerings (shabbat b’shabbato). The Shabbat special offering was 2 male yearling lambs. The word ‘b’shabbato’ (in its own Shabbat) indicates that the Shabbat offerings could not be postponed until any other day or even to the next Shabbat. If they were not offered on the day they were supposed to be offered, the opportunity to offer that Shabbat’s offerings was missed.
There were also monthly sacrifices on Rosh Chodesh in vv.11ff in addition to the daily and the Shabbat offerings (if the Rosh Chodesh happened upon a Shabbat), “…two young bullocks, and one ram, seven lambs of the first year without spot;” that’s a LOT of extra work to be done on Rosh Chodesh (there is still more for Yom Teruah). It certainly looks as though the priesthood had this extra duty every month on 1st day of the month. So, even though there is only ONE Rosh Chodesh which is commanded to be a “miqra kodesh”, they ALL had special offerings (David makes reference to this sacrifice in 1Sam.20). The meal and libation offerings are the same as they always are for each animal offered as a ‘sweet savour unto Y’hovah’.
The very same offerings as were offered on Rosh Chodesh are also offered EVERY DAY of the week of Unleavened Bread, except that beginning with ULB there is also a he goat of the 1st year offered as a sin offering. This leads me to infer that there is a difference between the Rosh Chodesh and the mo’edim, as ALL the spring moedim have a yearling male goat for a sin offering. We’ll see in a few minutes if there is a difference between the average Rosh Chodesh and Yom Teruah, Rosh Chodesh of the 7th month.
There isn’t any difference in offerings between the mikrai kodesh on the 1st and 7th days and the 5 days in between them. These special offerings will be in addition to the daily and the Shabbat offerings on the weekly Shabbat. The whole of the 7 days, therefore ARE a part of the mo’ad, but only the 1st and last days are mikrai kodesh. These are days of no servile work, by which I take the meaning of ‘our occupation for making a living’. Only ONE of these days is designated as a day of NO WORK WHATEVER and we’ll get to it in its course.
V.26 ff speaks of Shavuoth, specifically. All the same offerings are made on Shavuoth as on all the other mo’edim up to now. It says ‘after your weeks’, from which I infer that this is the only day of 1st-fruits that has an additional special offering. The 1st-fruits of Barley does not; the 1st-fruits of wheat does. I infer from this that barley firstfruits is not a mo’ad, though it has significance in that it is the 1st day of the 1st week of the omer count to Shavuoth, as well as the day of Yeshua’s resurrection as the 1stfruits from among the dead. This ends the special offerings for the spring mo’edim and mikrai kodesh. All consist of 2 young bullocks, 1 ram, 7 yearling lambs and a goat for a sin offering. Q&C
B’midbar 29.1ff – On Yom Teruah only one young bullock was offered specifically for Yom Teruah, where in each of the spring festivals there had been 2 young bulls offered. The one bullock, one ram, 7 lambs, and one he-goat were in addition to the daily, Shabbat (if applicable) and the Rosh Chodesh offerings (2 bullocks, no goat). There is a different verb used here concerning the offering. Up until here the verb has been ‘you shall offer’ (v’hikravthem) an offering; here Y’hovah said ‘you shall make’ (va’asiythem) an offering. Yom Teruah was not JUST a Rosh Chodesh. The command to ‘make’ the offering on Yom Teruah is not applied to every Rosh Chodesh – only this Rosh Chodesh. It was designated as a mo’ad and a miqra kodesh. The Stone’s Chumash has an interesting note on page 895.
Throughout this chapter Torah uses the verb vahikravtem והקרבתמ, you shall offer. The verb make,used for the offerings of Rosh haShanah, alludes to a unique aspect of the Day of Judgment: God says, “As soon as you have appeared before Me for judgment and have been acquitted, you will be regarded as newly made creatures.” [Da’ath Zekeinim] w/o spot or blemish.
Shades of 2Cor.5.17 and Gal.6.15!
Therefore if any man be in Mashiyach, he is a new creature: old things are passed away; behold, all things are become new. (II Corinthians 5:17)
For in Mashiyach Yeshua neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision, but a new creature. (Galatians 6:15)
It was the day that the Teruah was blown on the shofarim to call Yisrael to execute Y’hovah’s command to move out! One of the themes of Yom Teruah is resurrection day. Many orthodox Jews believe that it will be on a future Yom Teruah when the dead will be resurrected. If the dead will answer the call of the shofarim on Yom Teruah, don’t you think it might be wise for us to listen for it and respond to it, as well? Do you think that the rabbis of the Mishkan and 1st Temple offered all these special offerings for 2 days, to ensure they didn’t miss Yom Teruah, like they have since the Babylonian captivity; or do you think they actually knew which day was Yom Teruah? The difference since the Bar Kochba rebellion (c.140CE) and exile from haAretz is the use of an intercalated calendar, rather than observation of the new moon of the 7th month in the land. Of course, there ARE people there to observe it now, but I guess that tradition trumps obedience to Y’hovah’s commands. Not that Judaism is alone in observing tradition over obedience to her Creator. Xians observe their own pagan holidays and claim they are keeping them to Y’hovah, like Jeroboam’s Yisrael did with the Golden Calves in Bethel and Dan.
Vv.7-11 gives instruction for the offerings to be made on Yom haKippurim. On Yom haKippurim, the burnt offering was like that of Yom Teruah, except that 2 more goats were set apart as the goats for atonement. This is spelled out in Lev.23. All we’re looking at here is burnt offerings – freewill offerings, if you will, so there is no detail about the goats for Y’hovah and Azazel.
Beginning in v.12 are the special offerings for the Feast of Sukkoth. There is a different special offering everyday, differing in the # of young bullocks that are offered, descending in # from 13 on the 1st day of Sukkoth to 7 on the last day of Sukkoth. This would total 70 young bullocks offered during the 7 day Feast. 70 is the number of nations in the world, according to Gen.10. Chumash’ note to v.13 says that if the 70 primary nations of the world knew what these offerings meant to them they would send legions to protect Yerushalayim and ensure that noone interfered with the festivities of Sukkoth. In the final Millennial Sukkoth, the nations will send their legions, but it won’t be to protect the city.
7 And when the thousand years are expired, Satan shall be loosed out of his prison, 8 And shall go out to deceive the nations which are in the four quarters of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them together to battle: the number of whom is as the sand of the sea. 9 And they went up on the breadth of the earth, and compassed the camp of the saints about, and the beloved city: and fire came down from God out of heaven, and devoured them. (Rev.20.7-9)
Each day’s offerings are the same, except for the bulls for the nations being in descending number from 13-7. There were the bulls, 2 rams, and 14 spotless male yearling lambs for the burnt offering and a male goat for a sin offering every day. Why the descending number of offerings for the primary nations of the world? The same total would be offered if they offered 10 every day, so it isn’t JUST the total number that’s important. As the number declines, so (the sages say) does the influence of the nations of the world in Yisrael’s existence. They see a gradual lessening of influence over Y’hovah’s people until the nations finally accept the spiritual leadership of Yisrael. I see it as a spiritual declension of the nations until they are finally defeated and forced under Mashiyach’s authority in the Millennium. So, I agree with the sages, as far as they go. I just carry it to Rosh Yisrael – Mashiyach as Sar Yisrael – the Prince. Rashi makes the connection between 98 lambs, which represent Yisrael, being offered to the 98 curses placed on Yisrael in Devarim 28.15ff.
I think that this is at least an interesting juxtaposition. Numbers MEAN things in Torah.
The last special mussaf offering is the one offered on Shimeni Atzereth, the Last Great Day of the Feast (Jn7.37). This one is identical to the Yom Teruah special offering, so the first and last offerings of the 7th month look the same. This day is called a solemn assembly in KJV, a ‘restriction’ in Stone’s Tanakh following Rashi’s designation. Atzereth = restraints. Shimeni Atzereth can be seen as ‘the eighth restrains’. That could mean that this is the last of the fall and yearly feasts of Y’hovah, so the last of the miqra kodesh for the year, the feasting is now ‘restricted’ to the weekly shabbat and family gatherings. It could also be like the sages say in the Chumash note on pg.897, 2nd paragraph, right hand column.
Atz’ereth עטרת – A restriction. The translation follows Rashi, who interprets the word as a restriction on travel, for the pilgrims in Yerushalayim were not to leave for home until after Shemini Atzareth. The translation of Ankelos is a more familiar one, Assembly, which probably refers to the above requirement that the pilgrim remain in Yerushalayim and thus be assembled before God for one more day. It also coincides with the following comment from the Sages:
“During the entire Sukkoth Festival, seventy bulls are offered on behalf of the 70 gentile nations. After the festival, when the pilgrims are ready to return to their homes, God says to Yisrael, as it were, “Make a small banquet unto Me so that I can enjoy your [exclusive] company.” This can be likened to a king who ordered his servants to make a great banquet. When it was over, he asked his dearest friends to arrange a small meal where he, the great king, could enjoy their intimate company. So, too, following the offerings of the nations, God longs for the company of His Own nation (Rashi).
Sfat Emet comments that since Sukkoth is the festival of Joy, the sages wanted to combine its festivity with the celebration of Torah, and that is why Simchat Torah – the completion and new beginning of the Torah reading – was made in conjunction with Sukkoth. Let Yisrael utilize their happiness to rejoice over the greatest of all gifts.
Yechezkel 45 (read the haftara after this paragraph) – The subject of our haftara begins in v.9, where Y’hovah is rebuking the princes of Yisrael. I think we are at the beginning of the Millennium and the Kingdom of Y’hovah in the Land at the dedication of the 3rd Temple. V.9-12 are important to get the context, so let’s read them with our portion.
Y’hovah is angry with the princes, the priests, rulers and judges, because they have oppressed the people through high taxes/tithes (exactions) and showing partiality in the dispensation of justice, preferring the rich and influential. IOW, what Yisrael’s princes were doing before Mashiyach the Prince came to town is very much like what the world’s governments and politicians are doing right now, today. The government of Yisrael had become fascistic (sound familiar?). Mashiyach EXPECTS the princes of Yisrael to be content with their inheritances and to deal justly and bring righteous judgment in every matter. He expects there to be just weights and measures, and honest money and that the princes enforce them righteously. He goes so far as to prescribe what the weights should be. An Ephah was a dry measure, like a bushel or a peck; a bath was a wet measure, like a gallon or a quart. An ephah and a bath are the same physical volume, which equaled 1/10 homer.
V.13-25 – The oblation for the dedication of the Third Temple will be 1/6 homer of wheat or barley = about ½ bushel. A bath of oil is about 6 gallons, roughly equivalent to a bushel in volume. 1/10th of a bath = .6 gallons or about 2.3 litres. 1 lamb of every 200 is to be offered as a burnt offering. This is from the nation, so I suppose that each family would count his sheep and send .5 percent for the dedication of the Temple. The dedication will take about 1 week to complete (cf.43.20). That’s a lotta lambs sent by the people to the prince for offering.
It sure looks to me that the prince is actually partaking in the mussaf offerings on Pesach and Sukkoth in the Millennial Temple, preparing the animals for offering. Since when does the prince have anything to do with the offerings in the Temple? Since that prince will be the Melchizedek, Mashiyach Yeshua. He is the High Priest as well as the Prince. The sons of Zadok are the priests who will actually offer the burnt offerings for a sweet savour to Y’hovah. The mussaf offerings are different in the Kingdom Temple than in the 1st and 2nd temples. The offerings at Pesach and Succoth times will be the same – 7 bullocks and 7 rams daily for a burnt offering and a goat each day for a sin offering. On the first day of each Feast he also offers an extra bullock for a sin offering for himself and the people before any of the other animals is slaughtered. Shavuoth and Yom Teruah/Yom Kippur will NOT be observed in the 3rd Temple. Sin offerings are for unintentional or inadvertent sins committed while guarding ‘more important’ Toroth – like saving a man’s (or even an animal’s) life. Life takes precedence over anything else. Q&C
Tehellim 115 – I think that this Psalm may be set prophetically in the early years of the Millennium. Idolatry had been put down only shortly before by the conquering Mashiyach who then took his place on the throne of David in Jerusalem and set up deputies in the nations of the earth. The first years of the Kingdom will be filled with hodu and hallel to Y’hovah. But it will only be a few years before passive rebellion against Y’hovah and his rod of iron begins in the hearts of men. They will submit to Yeshua’s authority, but not willingly. And they will be having children, who will be raised in the nurture and admonition of their parent’s passive rebellion. They, too, will submit until the end of the Millennium, when the Adversary is released from his prison to lead the final Gog uMagog rebellion against the King and his remnant encamped around Jerusalem for the final Feast of Sukkoth in this Creation [Rev.20.6-10]. They will have been idolaters in their hearts for almost a Millennium and will go fully into idolatry with the Adversary as its object.
I think that is the idea in vv.2-8, and the idolatry will be more or less general, with only a small remnant staying faithful to King Mashiyach. The idolaters think that they cannot see Y’hovah, when he is in fact sitting on the throne in the resurrected flesh of Yeshua. Of course, being Y’hovah, he is also ‘in the heavens’ and had done both what he pleased and allowed what it pleased him to allow. Please understand that the idols of v.4 are both the images that are made from silver and gold, and the silver and gold itself. The ‘love of money’ is just another form of idolatry. Idols are almost as stupid as the people who worship them. The idolater makes the image with his own hands, so he KNOWS without a doubt that it is powerless over him, and yet he bows before it, prays for its protection and leadership against enemies. He shaped the mouth, eyes, nose, ears, hands of the idol, and yet he expects the thing of his own making to do what he is incapable of doing for himself. Shades of Terach, Avraham’s abba.
But we are admonished to place our trust in Y’hovah, who created everything that exists by the Word of His Power. The same Word of Power that will sit on the Millennial Kingdom’s throne in the flesh of our resurrected Mashiyach Yeshua. There are 3 groups of people who are admonished to trust Y’hovah to be their help and shield; 1) Yisrael, the Beit Yacov, 2) the priests of Y’hovah, Beit Aharon, and 3) whosoever will ‘fear’ Y’hovah. And all who WILL trust in Y’hovah will receive blessing from Y’hovah. The blessing follows the trust. When we trust him to do what he’s promised he shall do, He thinks about us. He keeps us in mind whose hearts are staid upon him
Thou wilt keep him in perfect peace, whose mind is stayed on thee: because he trusteth in thee. (Isaiah 26:3)
The blessings that are immediately forthcoming for those who trust him are ‘physical multiplicity’. This may come in the form of children and grandchildren, position, honor, and/or wealth. Y’hovah will bless us with the blessings we can handle. For example, if money will cause us to stumble, he will wait until it will not to bless us with it. Those of you, who, like myself, have not been blessed with lots of monetary wealth, think about that. Perhaps we have not proven ourselves faithful in little?
V.16 should be instructive for those who are looking for a pie-in-the-sky in the great-by-and-by. We are NOT spending more than a few days in heaven. We were designed for life on earth, not in heaven. Oh! We will have access to the heavenlies in our resurrected bodies, but we will NOT be there for long, if at all. Y’hovah made the earth and then he made us to inhabit it and be stewards over it. His plan has not changed even one skosh (it’s a real word – a little bit), whatever that is. And the prophecy of Yochanan in Revelation doesn’t do anything to make me think he will change it in future. We will live, after the Millennium, on the new Earth, not in the new Heaven. Q&C
Ivrit 10.1-10 – Remember that Hebrews was written to a group of Hebrew believers who were thinking of going BACK to the sacrificial system, and that ch.10 is the culmination of Rav Sha’ul’s argument that they should ‘stay the course’. Torah gives us promises in the form of parables. Those promises are efficacious to us IF people who believe the promises of Y’hovah faithfully perform them. Faithfully completing all the steps without the belief in Y’hovah’s promise to provide the reconciliation that is the object renders the action useless – wasted effort. Faith to believe the promises of Y’hovah without the accompanying obedience is equally useless, as Yeshua’s brother Yacov points out in the 2nd chapter of his book
12 So speak ye, and so do, as they that shall be judged by the law of liberty. 13 For he shall have judgment without mercy, that hath shewed no mercy; and mercy rejoiceth against judgment. 14 What profit, my brethren, though a man say he hath faith, and have not works? can faith save him? 15 If a brother or sister be naked, and destitute of daily food, 16 And one of you say unto them, Depart in peace, be ye warmed and filled; notwithstanding ye give them not those things which are needful to the body; what profit? 17 Even so faith, if it hath not works, is dead, being alone. 18 Yea, a man may say, Thou hast faith, and I have works: shew me thy faith without thy works, and I will shew thee my faith by my works. (Yacov 2.12-18)
Our merciful actions that are based on our belief that Y’hovah will fulfill all his promises are the object of Yacov’s letter, because the faithful actions taken are the object of faith. And the action of offering is the object of our faith in Y’hovah’s promises. Faith in the subject of Y’hovah’s promise without the accompanying object of obedience is wasted, as objective reality. There is no physical evidence of that belief and those who hear of our faith but see no evidence in our walk can properly call us liars.
3 And hereby we do know that we know him, if we keep his commandments. 4 He that saith, I know him, and keepeth not his commandments, is a liar, and the truth is not in him. 5 But whoso keepeth his word, in him verily is the love of God perfected: hereby know we that we are in him. 6 He that saith he abideth in him ought himself also so to walk, even as he walked. (1Yochanan 2.3-6)
If we go through the motions of all the sacrifices without flaw, but do not believe they will take away our sins, we’ve done nothing but kill a perfectly good animal. If we believe that the sacrifice will take away the sins, but don’t do the offering, then the sin is still there. Faith is the victory, according to 1Yochanan 5.4, but biblical faith is not merely the mental understanding that we are justified without works of Torah. Biblical faith is evidenced in our manner of life. We walk in accordance with the commands of Y’hovah and that walk becomes more and more natural as we become like Adonenu (our master) Moshienu (our Mashiyach) Yeshua.
V.1 speaks of the Law as a shadow of things to come. The law that Paul is speaking about, in context of ch.7-9, is the sacrificial laws that guided the Kohanim in their temple service. The shadow could not perfect those who relied only on it to take away sins, as we said before. If it could, then the atonement would only have had to be offered once. The fact that it needed to be continually repeated showed its inability to make us complete before Avinu. The use of nouns and pronouns in vv.1-2 makes it clear to me.
1 For the law having a shadow of good things to come, and not the very image of the things, can never with those sacrifices which they (priests in ch.7-9) offered year by year continually make the comers thereunto perfect. 2 For then would they not have ceased to be offered? because that the worshippers once purged should have had no more conscience of sins.
The reference in v.4 to the blood of bulls and goats ties us through Ezekiel 45 to Numb.28.11-29.40 and the offering of 70 bulls for the nations and the goats for sin offerings in every mussaf offering except the Shabbat and for atonement on Yom Kippur. He refers to,
6 Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire; mine ears hast thou opened: burnt offering and sin offering hast thou not required. 7 Then said I, Lo, I come: in the volume of the book it is written of me, 8 I delight to do thy will, O Elohai: yea, thy law is within my heart. (Ps.40.6-8)
Mashiyach says that Y’hovah did not desire animal sacrifices, but obedience to his will, meaning Torah, his instructions. Because he could not find even one man whose singular desire was to do his will without question, not one man who could overcome his Yetzer hara, evil inclination; not Adam, not Avraham, not even Moshe, the meekest man ever to walk the earth – NO ONE; Y’hovah had to institute a series of offerings (parables/shadow picture) to make atonement for man’s sins. Eventually, Y’hovah had to provide a spotless lamb of atonement for himself (Gen.22), a 2nd Adam, miraculously conceived without the input of man’s seed, and to ensure his obedience he had to quicken that ‘seed of the woman’ by his own indwelling Ruach. How else could he be certain of the seed’s willing obedience? This was and is Mashiyach Yeshua.
3 Even so we, when we were children, were in bondage under the elements of the world: 4 But when the fulness of the time was come, Eloha sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, 5 To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons. (Gal.4.3-5) [‘The law’ here refers to rabbinic traditions, not Torah.]
For we have not an high priest which cannot be touched with the feeling of our infirmities; but was in all points tempted like as we are, yet without sin. (Hebrews 4:15) [‘in all points’ = lawful (Torah) and legal (man-made tradition and regulation)]
16 This I say then, Walk in the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfil the lust of the flesh. 17 For the flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh: and these are contrary the one to the other: so that ye cannot do the things that ye would. 18 But if ye be led of the Spirit, ye are not under the law. (Gal.5.16-18) [Spirit = Torah, flesh/the law = man-made tradition – cf.Rom.7.14ff]
Y’hovah’s will is that we walk after Ruach and obey his Torah. By the one time offering of Yeshua on the tree, he did away with the need for atonement. You will notice that the word ‘atonement’ is not found in Ezekiel, though the root word, kaphar, to cover, is x-lated ‘reconciliation’ in 45.15, 17 & 20, all having to do with the whole nation or the House of Yisrael. Salvation was national, not individual, in Tanakh. It is no different now. “All Yisrael shall be saved. And “They are not all Yisrael who are of Yisrael.” Q&C
Vv.11- – Yeshua’s offering was performed once, and there is no longer a need or a use for sacrifices for atonement. We have been reconciled to Avinu by Yeshua’s one time offering. So every atonement that took place after Yeshua’s death was simply the death of an animal, for no purpose. Y’hovah gave the Jews, that is the political leadership of the religion in Yisrael, about 40 years to get their acts together. When they didn’t, here came Rome to destroy the Temple so the Jews (political leaders) COULD not offer an atonement. I am going to venture an educated guess here: The reason that Y’hovah has not allowed the new Temple construction in J’lem is his gracious longsuffering with Judah. No sooner will that new Temple be built than Y’hovah’s wrath will begin to fill the bowls. And it won’t take long to fill them to overflowing. At least a PART of the ministry of the 144K will be to give the Jews (political leadership of the religion) a chance to make teshuvah by giving them loud and continuous warning of Y’hovah’s judgment to come. End of educated guess.
In v.10 we see ‘once’, in v.12 we see ‘one sacrifice’, and in v.14 we see ‘one offering’. The Levitical/Aharonic priesthood had to be in the Temple every day offering the tamid, the daily offerings. They had to offer all the mussaf offerings we saw in our Torah portion today, every Shabbat, every new moon, every mo’ad. In the 3rd Temple, as we said earlier, only Pesach and Sukkoth will see mussaf offerings. The one offering to atone will never be offered again, even as a shadow/parable. Those animal sacrifices were never Y’hovah’s perfect will. His perfect will was that Adam eat of the Tree of Life – obedience to his Torah. There was ONLY ONE instruction. Yeshua did Y’hovah’s perfect will, who through the faith of Yeshua reckoned his righteousness to us whom he would sanctify, and to those who would follow him, desiring Y’hovah’s heart to be his own.
In vv.16-18, Sha’ul makes reference to the New Covenant, of which we are partakers through Yeshua’s finished work on the tree. The word ‘remission’ in v.18 is defined in v.17 – ‘their sins and iniquities I will remember no more’. The definition of ‘remission’ is the cancellation of a debt, charge or guilt. Y’hovah remits our debt and guilt when we trust Yeshua to deliver us. And once a debt is remitted and Y’hovah chooses to forget it, it no longer exists. If he ever forgets us, we shall cease to exist. He is constantly remembering us, constantly speaking us into continued existence by the same Word he used to call us into existence in the 1st place. Since our sins are forgotten and no longer exist, we can walk right into his throneroom and make our supplications to him personally. We enter by a new (compared to the old way of animal blood – the way of death?) and living way by the blood of Mashiyach Yeshua, who ever liveth, and in whom we live.
V.22 has a clear reference to Ezek.36.25 and Num.19
24 For I will take you from among the heathen, and gather you out of all countries, and will bring you into your own land. 25 Then will I sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be clean: from all your filthiness, and from all your idols, will I cleanse you. 26 A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you: and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you an heart of flesh. 27 And I will put my spirit within you, and cause you to walk in my statutes, and ye shall keep my judgments, and do. (Ezek.36.24-27)
Clean water refers to the water of reconciliation – the red heifer in Num.19. It is pretty obvious, even to the most casual observer, that we haven’t seen the fulness of this prophecy, yet. We are not all in the Land. So we must be awaiting the prophecy’s ultimate fulfillment. But we do partake of it today. His Spirit is in us, he has softened our hearts toward his Torah obedience.
In v.23-31, Paul makes his appeal and he is about to reach the summit of his argument. These Hebrew believers in Yeshua are ready to abandon the Netzari sect and go back to the traditions of the Pharisees. ‘Our faith’ is in the blood of Yeshua, not of bulls and goats. ‘Our faith’ is the faith of Avraham, Yitzhak and Ya’acov – the Covenant, not the law that was added – the laws of animal sacrifice for atonement.
Wherefore then serveth the law? It was added because of transgressions, till the seed should come to whom the promise was made; and it was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator. (Galatians 3:19)
Y’hovah who promised us an inheritance in the entire land-grant of Gen.15 is faithful to perform what he has promised. So let’s not forsake assembling ourselves (v.25) for Torah reading and discussion on our Shabbats, our mo’edim. Sha’ul then tells them that taking part in the Temple atonement is willful sin, and there is no way back after you’ve denied the Master who bought us. These Hebrew believers were going to go back and offer animal sacrifices for their sins under the Temple priesthood and authority. Paul tells them that there is no more sacrifice for atonement – those sacrifices have no more effect. If Josephus is right, there has been no evidence of Y’hovah’s acceptance of the Kippurim since Yeshua’s death on the tree, as there had been for 1400 years before without fail. Trusting to those offerings that no longer had any effect was tantamount to rejection of Mashiyach’s blood and despite and contempt of the Ruach of Y’hovah. Trampling Yeshua’s blood and thinking his sacrifice common is the same thing to Sha’ul. Y’hovah is who will judge those men, and that should cause abject terror in them.
Next, he reminds them of the suffering and reproach they gladly suffered when they first believed; how they’d both suffered hardship themselves and supported those who had done so; how they’d come to Paul’s/Sha’ul’s own support when he was shut up, I infer, in Felix and Agrippa’s prisons (Acts 24 & 25). He tells them to not ‘cast away’ their confidence in Mashiyach, to not compromise what they know to be true, just so they can have peace with unbelievers. There should be no cause of war between believers, but Yeshua came to cause division between believers and pagans. So, keep your patience, because he who has promised is faithful and shall fulfill the Covenant. Q&C
End of Shabbat study.