Shabbat Bible Study for 18 January, 2020
©2020 Mark Pitrone and Fulfilling Torah Ministries
Year 1 Sabbath 42
Genesis 44:18 – 46:27 – Joshua 14:6-14, Ezekiel 37:9-14 – Psalm 38 – Acts 2:22-37
Background – Last time, Yoseph pulled the money in the sack trick again, but added the twist of the favorite coffee mug (for me, it would have been a coffee mug) in his full brother BenYamin’s sack, as well. When this was discovered, the Yacovsons trudged back to Succoth to face the music. Yehudah offered Yoseph ALL their services as avadim to Yoseph, but Yoseph applied Torah and said only the man who sinned would be punished, which should have been a clue to them, especially to Yehudah. He had had such a turn-around since the Tamar incident, becoming something of a tzadik in his own right, though to a lesser degree than Yoseph. But the surprise he was about to get was so out of the blue … When Yoseph refused to hold any but BenYamin, Yehuda showed his repentance, sanctification and maturity in Y’hovah’s Torah in a way that Yoseph could not deny.
Gen.44.18-34 – Yehudah asked to speak privately with Yoseph, or at least in muted tones so others wouldn’t hear. He was not ‘lording it over’ them or trying to take leadership he had not earned. He was, in fact, proving his worth as a leader. He rehearsed the entire interaction between them since last year, with 5-part harmony and full orchestration. He told Yoseph that his father had 2 sons by the wife of his youth – his soul-mate – who had died at a young age, that one son was dead and the other is so beloved of his father that if he were lost, as well, His father would die, if not physically, then emotionally and spiritually. Then he revealed his heart to Yoseph, and Yoseph could not help but see the change in it. He offered to stay as Yoseph’s eved, servant, in place of BenYamin, a substitutionary atonement for the sin of BenYamin. In this offer, Yoseph saw the heart change in Yehudah.
This man, 22 years before cared nothing for anyone but himself. He’d hated Yoseph enough to sell him into slavery to the Ishmaelites from Midian and not care what happened to him after. He was so wrapped up in himself that he had left his family for Adullam, sojourned among the Canaanites, even taken on much of their habits, including going in unto harlots while away from home. After Tamar, the Canaanitish woman, showed that SHE was more righteous than he was, he was cut to the quick and from that moment, in my mind anyway, repented before Y’hovah and went to fix the relationships in his family. And, as we saw in the last couple of times we were together, he had shown his worth to his father AND his brothers and had become their leader due to his attitude of service and circumspection before acting. Yehudah had actually made himself surety to Ya’acov for BenYamin’s safe return, and now was offering himself as a substitute slave for BenYamin. Yoseph now saw that Yehudah was repentant, that Yehudah knew that he was being judged righteously for what he’d done to Yoseph and for all the other sinful actions in his life, and was willing to suffer at Y’hovah’s hand in order to be made more like him. Q&C
45.1-15 – The obvious change in Yehudah had an immediate effect on Yoseph. He quickly had every Egyptian, including his interpreter, sent out of the room, which must have been an unusual action for him to take. This would have piqued the interest of all the Egyptians, and caused them to remain close enough to hear the exchange between Yoseph and the Hebrews. I imagine a group of Egyptians, Yoseph’s steward closest to the door, all with their ears pressed up against it, so if someone opened the door from the other side they’d all come tumbling in like the stuff stuffed into Fibber McGee’s closet. That would not be necessary, since Yoseph almost broadcast what he said next. He wept loudly enough for everyone to hear. Now imagine his brothers’ reaction just to that – the 2nd in command of the world’s super-power weeping aloud and nearly uncontrollably, especially Yehudah, whose monologue had inspired it. I’d describe it as inquisitive fear; “What the HECK is going on? Is this guy STABLE?!”. This guy had the power of God over them, and he was obviously not in control of his emotions right then. Emotional volatility is not what we hope to see in the guy who is going to judge us. Meanwhile, the Egyptian servants were probably ALSO seeing a side of Yoseph they’d never seen. This man, who was the epitome of self-control, WEEPING?! They were probably concerned, as well. And then Yoseph let them know what the emotional outburst was about.
In fluent Hebrew, Yoseph said, “Ani Yoseph acheichem”; “I am Yoseph, your brother!” Stop right there and think what the first thing was that went through Yehudah’s mind! “OY VEY! I’m unDONE! I personally negotiated the price of a slave for him IN HIS HEARING! I just offered MYSELF as HIS servant! I may not see the sun set today! Oy VEY! I’m TOAST!” And Yehudah was not the only one – they were all speechless, and all but BenYamin had had a hand in throwing Yoseph into a pit and his sale into slavery. The only one not in fear for his life is BenYamin. HE is trying to wrap his head around the idea that his brother is NOT dead, as he’s been told for 22 years. He’s thinking, “My brother Yoseph is ALIVE!?” BenYamin’s mixed emotions are very different from his brothers’.
Now, think of when, in the not too distant future, Yeshua, who came as Mashiyach ben Yoseph and was rejected by the Iuaidoi political leadership of the Hebrew religion, comes through the clouds and reveals himself to his brother Yehudah. What do you think will go through Yehudah’s mind? “OY, VEY! I’m unDONE! I rejected him and pierced him and put him on a Roman torture stake and denied all the miraculous witnesses to who he truly was and told all my talmidim that he was an imposter for millennia and here he is in response to MY call to Y’hovah for his deliverance. OY, VEY! I’m TOAST!”
Yoseph’s next words are not what the 10 expected, though. Instead of accusations and recriminations, he cried out, “Does my father yet live?” All Yoseph can think of is his Abba, as all Yeshua thought of was doing his Abba’s will
I delight to do thy will, Elohai: yea, thy Torah is within my heart. (Psalms 40:8)
Then he called them in close, so they could look closer and see that it was really him. He said, for the 3rd time, “I am Yoseph. I’m your brother”, by which he meant that he still had filial love for them, more so than they had had for him, and that he did not hold what they did to him against them. While they had sold him into slavery, it was a part of Y’hovah’s plan to preserve them all alive. He had had LOTS of time to think about it and Ruach had shown it to him that he was sent ahead of them
28 And we know that all things work together for tov to them that love Y’hovah, to those who are the called according to His purpose. 29 For whom He did foreknow, He also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of His Son, that He might be the Bachor [firstborn] among many Yisraelite brothers. 30 Moreover whom He did predestine, those He also called: and whom He called, those He also justified: and whom He justified, those He also esteemed. 31 What shall we say then to these things? If Y’hovah is for us, who can be against us? [Rom.8.28-31, Restoration Scriptures].
He then told them about Paroh’s dreams and his interpretation of them and his plan to save the lives of the people and, as it turned out, his own family.
He told them to hurry, get home and bring Ya’acov to him. I think he may have wanted them to go before Paroh got wind of the fact that they were his brothers. Then he went and wept on each of his brothers. And when he wept on BenYamin, the ‘little’ [katon] guy was every bit as emotional as Yoseph was. After all, his brother was lost and had been found; he was dead but had now been found alive. Sounds familiar, doesn’t it?
11 ¶ And he said, A certain man had two sons: 12 And the younger of them said to father, Father, give me the portion of goods that falleth. And he divided unto them living. 13 And not many days after the younger son gathered all together, and took his journey into a far country, and there wasted his substance with riotous living. 14 And when he had spent all, there arose a mighty famine in that land; and he began to be in want. 15 And he went and joined himself to a citizen of that country; and he sent him into his fields to feed swine. 16 And he would fain have filled his belly with the husks that the swine did eat: and no man gave unto him. 17 And when he came to himself, he said, How many hired servants of my father’s have bread enough and to spare, and I perish with hunger! 18 I will arise and go to my father, and will say unto him, Father, I have sinned against heaven, and before thee, 19 And am no more worthy to be called thy son: make me as one of thy hired servants. 20 And he arose, and came to his father. But when he was yet a great way off, his father saw him, and had compassion, and ran, and fell on his neck, and kissed him. 21 And the son said unto him, Father, I have sinned against heaven, and in thy sight, and am no more worthy to be called thy son. 22 But the father said to his servants, Bring forth the best robe, and put on him; and put a ring on his hand, and shoes on feet: 23 And bring hither the fatted calf, and kill; and let us eat, and be merry: 24 For this my son was dead, and is alive again; he was lost, and is found. And they began to be merry.
25 Now his elder son was in the field: and as he came and drew nigh to the house, he heard music and dancing. 26 And he called one of the servants, and asked what these things meant. 27 And he said unto him, Thy brother is come; and thy father hath killed the fatted calf, because he hath received him safe and sound. 28 And he was angry, and would not go in: therefore came his father out, and intreated him. 29 And he answering said to Father, Lo, these many years do I serve thee, neither transgressed I at any time thy commandment: and yet thou never gavest me a kid, that I might make merry with my friends: 30 But as soon as this thy son was come, which hath devoured thy living with harlots [Mark note: this is Yehudah speaking – Remember Tamar?], thou hast killed for him the fatted calf. 31 And he said unto him, Son, thou art ever with me, and all that I have is thine [Mark note: as haMelech, the king. Returning Ephraim is haTzadik in this parable and their reunion will re-establish the MelechTzadik priesthood to the earth]. 32 It was meet that we should make merry, and be glad: for this thy brother was dead, and is alive again; and was lost, and is found.
After all that, the brothers visited like family does after a long absence or separation. Q&C
Vv.16-28 – But the word had gotten to Paroh, who was pleased to hear about Yoseph’s brothers. So Paroh gave Yoseph orders to send some wagons to carry his father and his family to Egypt. Paroh told them to ‘not regard your stuff’, just leave it all in Cana’an. I think Paroh wanted Yacov and his fam to come down to Egypt as dependents, ‘on the dole’ as it were, not as free men. If they had a means to support themselves, they would not rely on the government to support them and would be less likely to do as they were told. So Yoseph did all that Paroh told him, and also gave each brother a new set of clothes, but BenYamin 5 sets of clothing (5 is the biblical number that represents gracious provision) PLUS 300 shekels of silver – just enough to pay the slave price for all of the elder brothers to his younger brother, who had no part in their selling Yoseph into slavery. BTW, the only son of Ya’acov who had never bowed the knee to Edom (ch.33) was BenYamin (born in ch.35). BenYamin had bowed to no man save his elder brother. New clothing speaks of the reward for a change of heart. New clothes are given to the martyrs under the altar in Rev.6, which they wear in 19.8.
9 And when he had opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar the souls of them that were slain for the word of God, and for the testimony which they held: 10 And they cried with a loud voice, saying, How long, O Lord, holy and true, dost thou not judge and avenge our blood on them that dwell on the earth? 11 And white robes were given unto every one of them; and it was said unto them, that they should rest yet for a little season, until their fellowservants also and their brethren, that should be killed as they, should be fulfilled. (Rev.6.9-11)
Fellow-servants refers to Ephraim, I think, and their brethren to Yehudah.
And to her was granted that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white: for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints. (Rev.19:8)
And he [Y’hovah, our Shophet, judge] answered and spake unto those that stood before him, saying, Take away the filthy garments from him. And unto him [Yeshua, the High Priest] he said, Behold, I have caused thine iniquity to pass from thee, and I will clothe thee with change of raiment. (Zechariah 3:4)
It looks as though Yoseph revealing himself and their little chat caused a change of heart for them all, and BenYamin not least of all. I can imagine that when Yoseph revealed himself, BenYamin was ticked at his brothers for deceiving both his father and him about Yoseph’s demise. BenYamin had 10 kids, according to the Chumash’ rabbis, all named, in one way or another, in memory of Yoseph. Yoseph sent them to his Abba with instruction to ‘not fall out of the Way.’ This was an admonition to stay in Torah, I think. They’d already been and back, were experienced travelers and were not ‘easy marks’, so I don’t think he meant ‘don’t get lost’ physically. He meant, “Stay in Derech Hashem”, the Way of Y’hovah.
When they told Ya’acov that Yoseph was still alive and had become 2nd in command of the world’s super-power, Ya’acov didn’t believe them at first. But when he understood, his spirit became lighter and he looked forward to going to his favorite son. We aren’t told if the Yacovsons told papa the whole story about selling Yoseph into Egypt or the deception or what, though I infer that he got all that from the words he used,
And Israel said, “Enough; Joseph my son is yet alive: I will go and see him before I die,”
as if he was dismissing their actions as inconsequential to the fact that he was going to see his son again. Notice that Ya’acov’s heart fainted, but Israel is going down to Egypt to see his son. Did Ya’acov’s heart change as well? V.28 can be seen as a similar reaction as that of the father of the prodigal – so happy that his son had been given back that he dismissed all the slights of his other sons. Q&C
46.1-27 – Israel, the prince of Eloha, loaded up all his stuff and his family and headed 1st to Beer Sheva to offer to Y’hovah. Perhaps he had not done so for a while, maybe since Yoseph was lost. While overnighting in Beer Sheva, Eloha appeared to him and told him to not fear going into Egypt, that this was where he was going to fulfill his promise to Avraham to make him a great nation. He told Ya’acov that he would be with him and would also bring him out of Egypt. When he said that Yoseph would put his hand on his eyes, I think he meant that he would die in Egypt and that Yoseph would bury him in Hevron.
From Beer Sheva, they left for Egypt, and there follows an interesting list of Israel’s descendants who go down to Egypt. But the math doesn’t work out – and the math is a simple head count. Leah’s children were: Reuven and his 4 sons = 5; Shimon and his 6 sons = 7 +R’s 5 = 12; Levi and his 3 sons = 4 + 12 =16; Yehudah and his 5 living sons = 6 + 16 = 22; Issachar and his 4 sons = 5 + 22 = 27; and Zevulon and his 3 sons = 4 + 27 = 31, and + Dinah, Leah’s daughter = 32. But Torah says there were 33. Where’s the missing 1? The rabbis say this is Yochebed, Moshe and Aharon’s mother, who was born as they crossed into Egypt. But that would make her about 120 when she bore Miryam, 127 when she bore Aharon and 130 years old when she bore Moshe – each greater miracles than Sarah bearing Yitzhak at 90. Why would Torah have mentioned the one and not the other? I think there’s a better possibility. So let’s continue. Our total of named Yacovson seed is 32, so far.
Zilpah’s children were” Gad and his 7 sons = 8; Asher and his 7 sons, daughter and grand-children = 8 + 8 = 16, same count as Torah. 32+16 = 48 named Yacovsons so far.
Rachel’s children were: Yoseph and his 2 sons by Asenath, his Egyptian wife, who were all waiting for Ya’acov in Egypt = 3; BenYamin and his 10 sons = 11 + 3 = 14, as Torah says. 48 + 14 = 62.
Bilhah’s children were: Dan and his son = 2; Naphtali and his 4 sons = 5 + 2 = 7 + 62 = 69. Now Torah says that there were 66 who came down to Egypt with Ya’acov and that Yoseph and his sons were already there and that 70 Yacovsons were in Egypt with Ya’acov. Where is the 70th? Let me share a little of our midrash from a few weeks ago at this point:
Jono and I were talking about this last week (12/4/10) and we spoke of Asenath. A listener commented on Asenath and brought the following info to my attention. In Egyptian her name means ‘belonging to Neith’, Neith being the Egyptian goddess Isis, or Ephesus’ Diana, or Babylon’s Ishtar. But in Hebrew it means ‘under a thorn bush’. It is proposed by the rabbis, according to the Jewish Encyclopedia, that she is actually the daughter of Dinah by Shechem’s rape in ch.34. The brothers, according to the rabbis, didn’t want this reminder of their sister’s defiling, so Yacov placed Asenath ‘under a thorn bush’ (blackberry), from whence an angel picked her up and took her to Egypt and Potiphar, the eunuch, and his wife to raise in anticipation of Yoseph. Another rabbinic idea is that she was taken to Egypt and left at the outer wall of the city where Potiphar heard her crying and went out to investigate the noise. When he saw the baby, he took her in to raise her as his own. Either way, this is also a convenient explanation of a seeming contradiction in ch.46, where Torah SAYS Yacov came down to Egypt with 70 of his descendants, but only 66 are listed as making the journey. Adding Yoseph and his sons brings the total to only 69. If Asenath was Dinah’s daughter, it solves 2 problems for us and the rabbis – 1) the 70th descendant of Yisrael is already in the land with Yoseph and 2) Yoseph doesn’t marry an Egyptian pagan, but his niece and Ephraim and Menashe are not ½ Egyptian and 1/2 Israelite, but FULLY Yisraeli. If Asenath was NOT a descendant of Yisrael, she is the only NON-Yisraelite mentioned in ch.46 (v.20). If Asenath knew her real ancestry was Hebrew, this would also give credence to the idea that it was she who told the true story to Potiphar that kept Yoseph’s head in place and gave Potiphar the ability to keep Yoseph where he could help Potiphar prosper and be promoted.
I think that’s a better explanation of the text, using the names listed in the Torah and not just taking a stab in the dark and creating more trouble by conjuring out of thin air an even greater miracle than that of Sarah’s delivery of Yitzhak at age 90, but that is never spoken of in scripture. Why name only one non-Israelite, Asenath, if she isn’t one of Ya’acov’s children? I think it’s an easier reconciliation, since she is actually named in the passage. Q&C
Josh.14.6-14 – Kalev was a man of action. He didn’t mess around. He went right up to Y’hoshua, and told him that he wanted the land Moshe had promised him – Hevron, which had been Kiriath-Arba. And Y’hoshua said, “Yep. Moshe gave it to you. Go up and take it.” And he did. In ch.15 we see where he went up to take Hevron from the giants and he did just that. In fact, Kalev took ALL of the inheritance of Yehudah, except the actual city of Yevus – Yerushalayim. Maybe Y’hovah wanted to leave something for David to do. Had Kalev been the leader, do you think the conquest of the land would have been more complete? I think it likely. The other tribes were less enthusiastic about removing the Canaanites from the land than Yehudah was, and I think the difference was Kalev. At least until he had Hevron in his hands, he was relentless – 5 years subduing his tribal inheritance. And he was a dog of a gentile! Of course, that may have been WHY he was more relentless than the others. Converts are usually more zealous than those born into a faith. Kalev is the only person who was granted an inheritance for himself that I recall. Maybe Y’hoshua. It isn’t that noone else could have his own personal inheritance; I think they all could have. Every one got that part of the tribal inheritance that he could take from the Canaanites. Kalev got all of his. Had he asked for Yevus, he’d have taken it, as well. It really was all about trusting Y’hovah to do what he promised and acting like it
12 Wherefore, my beloved, as ye have always obeyed, not as in my presence only, but now much more in my absence, work out your own salvation with fear and trembling. 13 For it is Eloha which worketh in you both to will and to do of his good pleasure. (Phil.2.12-13).
He may have learned this trait from the ‘new’ Yehudah that Yoseph had met in Egypt. Maybe because he was so like the ‘new’ Yehudah, Moshe appointed him the head of the tribe of Yehudah. He certainly didn’t learn it from the ‘old’ Yehudah, who left the ‘earnest’ with the ‘harlot’ when it all disappeared without a trace. The ‘new’ Yehudah (like Kalev) would have hunted it down until he found it. Kalev actually entered into Y’hovah’s Shabbat rest, having fully trusted him in faith and faithfulness to his promises.
1 Let us therefore fear, lest, a promise being left of entering into his rest, any of you should seem to come short of it. 2 For unto us was the gospel preached, as well as unto them: but the word preached did not profit them, not being mixed with faith in them that heard. 3 For we which have believed do enter into rest, as he said, As I have sworn in my wrath, if they shall enter into my rest (Ps.95.11): although the works were finished from the foundation of the world. 4 For he spake in a certain place of the Shabbat on this wise, And Elohim did rest the seventh day from all his works. 5 And in this again, If they shall enter into my rest. 6 Seeing therefore it remaineth that some must enter therein, and they to whom it was first preached entered not in because of unbelief: 7 Again, he limiteth a certain day, saying in David, To day, after so long a time; as it is said, To day if ye will hear his voice, harden not your hearts. 8 For if Yehoshua [Moshe’ 2nd] had given them rest, then would he not afterward have spoken of another day. 9 There remaineth therefore a rest to the people of Elohim. 10 For he that is entered into his rest, he also hath ceased from his own works, as Elohim from his. 11 Let us labour therefore to enter into that rest, lest any man fall after the same example of unbelief. 12 For the word of Elohim [is] quick, and powerful, and sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart. (Heb.4.1-9)
Kalev labored to enter into his rest, as Y’hovah had done in B’reishith 2. Kalev’s labor consisted in destroying or driving out all the Canaanites from his land. Our labor is similar, but much more personal – to drive the world out of ourselves. May it be so with all of us.
Ezek.37.9-14 – Zeke prophesied about Yeshua calling the dispersed of Israel and Yehudah out of the nations, ‘from the four winds’ or ‘the four corners of the earth’ to haAretz Yisrael. This vision in vv.1-14 was about calling the whole nation to Zion. I think this will happen on some future Day of Trumpets and Shouting, Yom T’ruah, Resurrection Day. Look at the imagery in vv.12-14:
12 Therefore prophesy and say unto them, Thus saith Adonai Y’hovah; Behold, O my people, I will open your graves, and cause you to come up out of your graves, and bring you into the land of Israel. 13 And ye shall know that anochi Y’hovah, when I have opened your graves, O my people, and brought you up out of your graves, 14 And shall put my spirit in you, and ye shall live, and I shall place you in your own land: then shall ye know that anochi Y’hovah have spoken, and performed, saith Y’hovah.
That seems pretty unambiguous to me. Resurrection, regathering the 12 tribes, Y’hovah doing it all by HIS power. What do we need to do to bring this all to pass? Be ready to answer in a moment and obey immediately when called. Do we need to worry about WHEN we are to go to the land? No. HE will tell us. Do we need to know WHERE we are to gather to be taken to the land? No. He will lead us. I am being more and more convinced that if we go ahead of him, NOT in his timing, we’ll miss his call because we won’t be waiting for him to call. One Yom T’ruah in the not too distant future, the call will come. I hope we’ll have used the previous days to examine our lives for sin and repented of them so our lamps will be full of oil when the call goes out to make ready for the bridegroom.
1 Then shall the kingdom of heaven be likened unto ten virgins, which took their lamps, and went forth to meet the bridegroom. 2 And five of them were wise, and five foolish. 3 They that foolish took their lamps, and took no oil with them: 4 But the wise took oil in their vessels with their lamps. 5 While the bridegroom tarried, they all slumbered and slept. 6 And at midnight there was a cry made, Behold, the bridegroom cometh; go ye out to meet him. 7 Then all those virgins arose, and trimmed their lamps. 8 And the foolish said unto the wise, Give us of your oil; for our lamps are gone out. 9 But the wise answered, saying, lest there be not enough for us and you: but go ye rather to them that sell, and buy for yourselves. 10 And while they went to buy, the bridegroom came; and they that were ready went in with him to the marriage: and the door was shut. 11 Afterward came also the other virgins, saying, Lord, Lord, open to us. 12 But he answered and said, Verily I say unto you, I know you not. 13 Watch therefore, for ye know neither the day nor the hour wherein the Son of man cometh. [Matt.25.1-13]
In the 6th month of the biblical year, usually [if not always] a 30-day month, the people of Y’hovah are to prepare themselves for Resurrection Day, examining themselves and confessing their sins so they can be filled with the Ruach haKodesh. Those who did are likened unto the 5 wise virgins who HAVE the oil, representing Ruach. Those who did NOT are likened to the 5 foolish virgins who have no oil. Where will they be able to buy oil on the Shabbat of Yom T’ruah? They should have prepared for the coming of the Bridegroom. They knew the season [mo’ad] in which he’d be coming, they just didn’t know the exact year, day, or time. So, completing the metaphor, the wise virgins would be like Kalev, who labored to enter into their rest, and the foolish like most believers today, who don’t think they need to obey their Master and live in his righteousness. Q&C
Ps.38 – An acrostic Psalm – each verse begins with a sequential letter of the aleph-bet. 1=aleph, 2=bet, etc. Also a Messianic psalm. The 1st five verses cannot apply to Yeshua because they deal with punishment for personal sins, unless it is him identifying as our substitute and taking ownership of our sin. The rest of the psalm can most definitely apply to Mashiyach. He was troubled and bowed down under the weight of our sins. His death was that of the adulterous woman of Num.5, where we see this as in v.7:
22 And this water that causeth the curse shall go into thy bowels, to make thy belly to swell, and thy thigh to rot: And the woman shall say, Amen, amen.
If you were guilty of adultery and the priest put that curse on you in your guilt, what would be your response? I think you’d scream bloody murder, roar with disquietness, to not drink that water, but confess on the spot. Yeshua cried out “Eloi! Eloi! Lama Sabachtanai!” Even his friends stood afar off (v.11):
And all his acquaintance, and the women that followed him from Galilee, stood afar off, beholding these things. (Luke 23:49)
The snares of v.12, remind me of the 4 days they examined him on the Temple Mount, trying to trap him in his speech. V.13 fulfilled before Pilate and the Sanhedrin.
He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he opened not his mouth: he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb, so he openeth not his mouth. (Isaiah 53:7)
V.14 speaks about lashon hara, which is a false witness. A false witness doesn’t just speak of telling lies, but telling something that cannot be corroborated with another witness. We are not to repay slander with slander. We should treat our enemies as if they are our friends, exactly as Yeshua did before the Priests, Pilate and Herod. When he was reviled, he reviled not again (1Pe.2.23).
V.18 applies to me alone, except as Yeshua applies it to himself when he removes my sin FROM me and takes ownership of them FOR me. Thereby did he slay the enmity on his tree and make SHALOM between Y’hovah and us, and also between Yehudah and Ephraim.
15 Having abolished in His flesh the enmity, even the law of commandments contained in human dogma; for to make in Himself from the two one renewed man, so making shalom; 16 And that He might reconcile both to Y’hovah in one body by the execution stake, having slain the enmity through it: 17 And came and proclaimed shalom to you who were far off, and to them that were near. 18 For through Him we both have access by one Ruach to Abba. (Eph.2.15-18, Restoration Scriptures)
Vv.19-20 speak of Yeshua on his tree, with the Priests, the governments, both Roman and Israeli against him. But he had Avinu as an advocate on his side (vv.21-22), as we have Messiah Yeshua, our Advocate, on ours – and Avinu and Yeshua are one Ruach. Q&C
Acts 2.22-37 – Read from v.1-21 for background context, then this commentary – this will take a while, 10-15 minutes.
The house was not an upper room as taught by the church, but the Temple, the House of Y’hovah. This MUST be, because the people from at least 17 nations SAW a manifestation of the wind (Ruach) that they’d HEARD, as the cloven flames of fire (two houses). The Ruach being manifested also spoke to these 17 nations in their own languages through at least 17 of Yeshua’s followers; I think the 12, including Matityah + possibly Barnava and Yeshua’s brothers in the flesh (Matt.13.35, I really COULD be wrong about that). EVERY one who was there was witness to these strange phenomena. How many? At LEAST 3000 (v.41), probably LOTS more. EVERYone there wondered at these manifestations of Y’hovah’s Ruach, some were open to truth (what is this? Manna?), some were not (they’re drunk).
While Kefa spoke to the crowd in general, he addressed the point of the skeptics, knowing that his point would not be lost on those who were open to the Ruach’s teaching. He then told them they are witnessing a fulfillment of Yoel’s prophecy of 2.28-32 (3.1-5 in Hebrew/Aramaic Tanakh). Yoel prophesied to chol Yisrael, not just Yehudah. Same with Kefa. Yisraelites from all over the world were there for a ‘presentation’ mo’ad (Lev.23.15-21) – Shavuoth. Notice in Yoel’s prophecy he said both sons and daughters shall prophesy, but a strict construction of the text says visions are exclusively the domain of young men and dreams are exclusively the domain of old men. And then he reiterated that men and women prophesy. To prophesy is not necessarily to tell the future, but it IS necessarily to speak the Words of Y’hovah, whether to foretell or to tell forth. I am prophesying right now by telling forth the Word of Y’hovah. As far as I know, I have never had the gift of foretelling future events, though I am able to discern trends and weigh them against scripture to predict, however imperfectly, what MAY happen. I foresee POSSIBILITIES in my mind. That is not foretelling prophecy – I am not that kind of prophet. Y’hovah MAY manifest that through me at some future time, but it ain’t happening now. I would probably get all proud of that ability, so he hasn’t given it to me. Kefa ends his recitation of Yoel’s prophecy with “All who call on the Name of Y’hovah shall be delivered/saved.” Read ‘Salvation’ in the appendix of AENT, pp. 945-47. Q&C
Vv.22- – Kefa addressed ‘men of Israel’, the whole house of Ya’acov. He recalled to their minds the miraculous signs Yeshua haNotzrei had performed in their presence. He then made a point to tell them that Y’hovah had determined beforehand how Yeshua was to die and at whose hands. He told the Yehudim of Yerushalayim that they gave Yeshua over to the Temple guards [Herodians] for execution and insisted that he be executed over the strenuous objections of Pilate (who declared him faultless 4 times). It is by this pressure placed on Pilate that the Iuaidoi/‘Jews’, the leaders of the religion of Yehuda, nailed Yeshua to the tree. But some of these same men had witnessed his resurrection and KNEW he was alive. Now, Kefa drew upon Psalm 16 to make the midrashic point that Y’hovah would not allow his Mashiyach to see corruption, but that he would be resurrected. MarYah Yeshua is on the right hand, which means that HE is the right hand, not only of Elohim, but also of his children – his body. Mashiyach is our strength, not our own right hands. He sits at the right hand of Avinu – he is Avinu’s right hand, he is Avinu’s BenYamin – son of my Right Hand (the connexion to the Torah portion?).
Kefa then told them that David’s tomb is right there where they can see it, and he is still in it. But Elohim had promised David he’d establish one of his seed on his throne forever (Ps.110). How would that be in light of the curse on his son YechonYah, who would NEVER have a son prosper on the throne of David (Jer.22.30)? Yoseph, MirYam’s husband was a descendant in the line of YechonYah and ‘of the House and the lineage of David’, i.e.; the crown prince of Yisrael, like Willy is today in England. Yoseph raised Yeshua as his own son and heir, having named him at his circumcision. If Kefa’s audience didn’t know this, they could readily find the documentation in the Temple, where both naming and circumcision were likely performed. Yeshua was not Yoseph’s physical son and therefore was not YekonYahu’s son. But Yoseph made legal claim to Yeshua as his son and heir by naming him and CCing him. Kefa told them that this Yeshua was resurrected and there are eyewitnesses to his resurrection among them. So the phenomena they are witnessing is the pouring out of Y’hovah’s Ruach.
Then he quoted Ps.110. “Ascended on high and earth made his footstool” cannot speak of David, whose tomb they can see. Kefa drew the inference of Mashiyach Yeshua being that seed of David in whom the prophecy of Ps.110 was fulfilled. Kefa clearly stated that Y’hovah had made Yeshua both MarYAH and Mashiyach, Master and King/Deliverer. See note 27 in AENT, Pg.306. It was that statement, after all that set-up, that cut the Jews in the crowd to the quick, and made them ask the same question the rich, young ruler [was that Sha’ul of Tarsus?] had asked Yeshua all those months before, ‘What must we do to be saved?’ Q&C
End of Shabbat Bible Study